About one of every seven companies had an effective tax rate lower than 10 percent, including Amazon at 6 percent and Verizon at 9 percent. Nine companies paid no taxes at all.
Each circle represents a company, sized by its market capitalization. The largest is Apple, at more than $400 billion, with an effective tax rate of 14 percent.
Combining earnings and taxes for all S.&P. 500 companies gives an effective tax rate of 29.1 percent. But rates vary widely by industry.
Three big energy firms paid the most taxes in absolute terms: Exxon $146 billion; Chevron $85 billion; and ConocoPhillips $58 billion.
Effective tax rates cannot be computed for several dozen companies because they lost money over the six-year period. For example, A.I.G. lost $83 billion while paying $8 billion in taxes.

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